N. A Museibli.
Animals have played a crucial role in the material culture and economic activities of ancient people,,ru,Pets provide people with food,,ru. Животные обеспечивали людей пищей, clothing, transport and other vital resources, sometimes it is the main factor, defining the way people live.
For this reason, the animals used in farming, including some animals, hunted people, They occupied an important place in the spiritual culture of the people, became for them a cult, in connection with which to carry out certain rites and rituals. One such animal was a dog.
Early use of dogs and related mythical representations appeared in the Paleolithic era. In the Upper Paleolithic people, living in Eastern Europe and Siberia, used in hunting wolves tamed. In Western Siberia the first use of the dogs belong to the VIII millennium BC.
On the Paleolithic site in Kamchatka was discovered buried dog, Sprinkle with ocher. In Yakutia, in one of the graves of the Neolithic necropolis was discovered dog skull, dusted with ocher.
These findings point to the emergence of beliefs, related to the dog before the start of production and economic activity. And in the era of the early agricultural and pastoral cultures submission, associated with the cult of the dog, further spread.
In Azerbaijan, the first use of dogs and the emergence of religious beliefs, on dogs, also appeared at this stage - in the Eneolithic. Associated with dogs archaeological finds, relating to this period, met, in the graves, and in places of settlement. The oldest of them were dog skeletons, O.G.Gabibullaevym detected in two graves Kultepe I in the reservoir, relating to the Copper Age. In grave № 12, where flexed on the left side he was buried elderly man, in cadaver knees he was discovered dog skull. Also skeleton of a dog was found next to an elderly man kicking, buried in a bent position on the right side in the grave number 41. Despite, The skull of a second person was found in the grave, the rest of his bones is not detected.
One attention-grabbing issues are common features, combining the two graves. So, or in one of the graves were not found tools. In both of the graves of the skull, belonged to the people, We were not in anatomical order, In the first case, the skull was found on the chest, and in the second case - on the pelvic bones. In particular, the second factor indicates the cult nature of the burial of dogs together with people.
Among the finds discovered in Azerbaijan, on dogs and related to the Copper Age, Leylatepe known cultural monuments on the territory of Agstafa region. Here, in populations I and II Beyuk Kesik Poylu, belonging to the first half of the IV millennium, figurines have been found, made from the bones of the dog's head and clay.
In the settlement of Boyuk Kesik were found 3 zoomorphic figurines, made of bone. All three were made of hollow bones of sheep and goats of the same breed of cattle (I board, A-№1-3). The wide end of the hollow portion of the bone has been masterfully planed in the form of a dog's head. these figures, if you do not take into account the small touches, They do not differ from each other. One of them is completely black with dirt .
Despite, that among the Chalcolithic era monuments, found in the South Caucasus, anthropomorphic figurines were found, made of bone, zoomorphic figures there are not met. From this viewpoint detection zoomorphic figures from bone Beyuk Kesik can be regarded as a rare case.
Discovered at a depth of 90 refer to the 16th box portion excavations in figure II Poylu red dog's head was made of pure clay composition, but without firing. Ears and mouth are depicted protruding. The back of the head figurines size 3 x 3 cm flat (I board, A-№4).
Very likely, that dog figurines, results in settlements Beyuk Kesik and II Poylu, They were made for ritual purposes. Culture Leylatepe, which include residential settlements Boyuk Kesik I and II Poylu has been associated with the culture of Mesopotamia Ubeydskoy.
Archaeological investigations give grounds to speak about a specific place, occupied people's ideas about dogs, in the beliefs of both North, and South Ubeydskih crops. So, in the associated V millennium BC. Ubeydskom cultural layer multilayer Deirmantepe ancient settlements on the banks of the river Ferrat in Eastern Turkey skeleton of a dog was found, buried in a large earthen vessel (38, p.82).
In the settlement Yarymtepe III, Ubeydskoy relating to culture in Eastern Mesopotamia (end of the V- beginning IV century BC) Dog figurines have been found, made of clay.
In Uruk the formation of multilayer Urschi monument dog figurine was found in southern Mesopotamia, made of clay (37, rice. 24, №12759) .
On Eridunskom cemetery, Ubeydskoy relating to culture in southern Mesopotamia, facts were discovered joint burial of people and dogs (35, p.190). In one of the tombs of the cemetery dog skeleton was found, lying on top of the boy's skeleton (14, p.84).
In Plast, relating to the top end of the IV-III Millennium, another remarkable monument of the Middle East, the ancient settlement of Tell I in Syria, It was discovered as the osteological remains, owned dogs (2,6% of the total number of remains), and clay figurines. These findings give reason to speak about a specific place, occupied by a dog, in economy, and spiritual culture of the ancient inhabitants of the settlement.
ideas, standing at the basis of the figures dog settlements Boyuk Kesik and Poylu, according to the source, likely to have been associated with the cultures of Mesopotamia Ubeydskimi.
Early Bronze Age. Found, associated with dog, also met in the era of the Kura-Araz culture, in settlements, and the tombs of Azerbaijan. One of the first detected in the formation of bronze settlement period Kultepe I clay figures belongs dog. O.G.Gabibullaev binds both dumping dogs in their graves in the Eneolithic, and the production of clay figurines of dogs in the formation of the first Bronze Age cult of the dog, existed in the era. In his opinion, These findings suggest a link of the image of the dog in the representations of the ancient inhabitants of the house with the custodian Kultepe, of property, pastures, flock and the person.
Among the facing stones related to the first Bronze Age barrow Shamkirchay №1 on the territory of Shamkir region of the dog skeleton was found. In view of the long-term use of the mound in the economic purposes of the skeleton original order was violated.
Clay figurine of a dog, belonging to the first period Bronze, It was found in another ancient Azerbaijani monuments - this settlement Kultepe in Armenia (Armenified name "Mohrablur"). And Arychskom monuments in Western Azerbaijan (present Armenia), III relating to th. BC. figurines of shepherds and dogs have been found.
Zoomorphic clay figurines were also found in the ancient settlement Babadervish early Bronze Age. One of them is supposed to be a dog figurine. G.Ismailzade monument researcher defends the idea of the relationship of these findings to the cult rituals. A.Alekberov also noted the use of clay figurines of dogs during the ceremonial.
Among the Bronze Age petroglyphs found numerous images of dogs in Azerbaijan. Such images are the most prevalent in Caucasian Small monuments. In connection with the creation and rapid development of mountain cattle in the Bronze Age in the region to use dogs to protect herds, pastures and generally nomadic spread particularly widely. All this at the same time also led to the emergence of iconic representations of the dog.
At various stages of the Bronze Age on the rocks were engraved entire scenes or individual pictures with the image of the dog. At all, rock paintings can be considered a very rich source for the study of the use of dogs in the Bronze Age and the history of religious ideas, Related. Therefore, in connection with the subject under discussion is necessary to elaborate on the petroglyphs.
V.G.Alievym hundreds of rock carvings have been found, and among them there are dogs image. On one of the rocks image calmly standing dog with his head surrounded by several pictures of goats (3, p.27, Figure 4 №4). On the other stone depicts a goat, surrounded on one side by man, On the other hand dog. At this stage, along with the shepherd dog wants, collecting all the flock, send it to one side (3, p.29).
In the scene, depicting a dog and a snake, Dog shows in a realistic manner. Shown separately if the dog for something watches, He pricked his ears and his tail. (3, p.36).
In scenes, related to hunting, in Gamigaya were also marked dog image. So, on one stone depicts a man, next to him dog, and in front of them the deer. It is assumed, that at this stage the hunter with a dog blocked the path of the deer (3, p.42).
Aliyev came to the conclusion, dogs image, found in petroglyphs Gyamigainskih, associated with religious ideology agricultural and pastoral tribes. In his opinion, dog image Gyamigainskih petroglyphs act as a protective force, assistant (3, p.38). While agreeing with this idea researcher, we would like to add, that all images of dogs in Gamigaya associated not only with religious ideology, but also with the indispensable role of the dog in the economic life of the pastoralists Bronze Age.
During field research, held in Gamigaya in 2001-2003 gg. Hundreds of new pictures have been recorded, including dogs image.
Unturned № 100 It shows the whole scene, associated with animal husbandry. six goats depicted in the center of it, surrounded by two people and one dog (I board, In-№5).
One man is shown with outstretched arms in hand, People on the other side of the stage is depicted with a long rope in his hands. The dog on the other side of the stage is depicted with his head (6, p.184).
Unturned № 140 It depicts a man on a horse, above it - leopard, and behind them - the dog (II boards, A-№1). Here, the dog barking behind the leopard shows.
The stones № 173 and 177 dog shows several schematic drawings. All of them are directed to the right and shown with straight long legs.
These images are different from other styles. Together with them in the same style it depicts a bull, goat and dragon (II boards, AT; III board, A). these images, apparently, are the youngest petroglyphs Gamigaya.
Unturned № 308 It depicts a man with his arms bent at the elbows, facing up, and next to it a small dog with the head held up, like looking at him and watching his actions. In his right hand man shows whip, and the left - the subject of indefinite (IV scoreboard, A). maybe, here a scene of a man feeding dog.
Unturned № 347 In the foreground is a very interesting scene, in a realistic manner, showing dogs.
It depicts a fence and two goats in the area, surrounded them. Together with these animals at the site of the end of the fence painted two dogs (III board, In-№2,3). And the goat, and dogs looking in one direction - to the right. Their bodies are elongated ago, tails raised up, dog ready for battle. Behind them, draw a circle. As seen, here a scene of protection goats, located in the paddock, dogs from predators and other external forces.
Unturned № 349 (IV scoreboard, AT) Apply two dogs schematic image (6, p.243). Images of individual dogs (IVtablo, FROM) account number on the rocks 357 and 530 (6, p.245, 285).
Unturned № 524 It shows a hunting scene on the mountain goat. At the same stone, at a distance, there is a picture of a dog (IV scoreboard, D-№1). It is difficult to determine the degree of connection with the hunting dogs (6, p.284).
Interesting, that if not to take into account the accidental circumstances, dogs Gamigaya depicted earless. known, that dogs, used in animal husbandry, and in particular, in the mountain cattle, already cut off his ears at an early age. The purpose of this was that, that during the fight with other dogs or wolves opponent grabbed the dog by the ears. Apparently, This tradition has been known to cattle breeders in the Bronze Age.
On the high ridges of the ancient Azerbaijani lands of Zangezur and lakes Goycha were discovered thousands of rock carvings, relating to the same period, style and content, as petroglyphs Gamigaya. Among them are abundantly present images of dogs. The drawings of the monuments demonstrate the use of dogs herdsmen in the Bronze Age and the importance of dogs in the household. Dogs, basically, portrayed next to a man (shepherd) and small cattle, but sometimes drawn separately.
Among Zangezur rock paintings of dogs drawing especially much. Scenes without dogs are very rare. Subject scenes, which depicts a dog, exclusively related to livestock. It would be appropriate to draw attention to some of the characteristics of the scene, related to this topic.
On one stone (V boards, №1) shows a man, with legs bent at the elbows and hands up, one man hand holds some object hanging, next to him, surrounded by four goats depicts a dog (24, rice. 53, №3).
On the other stone (V boards, №2) dog shows with a representative of the cattle (24, ris.82, №5).
Of particular interest is the scene, in which four people and a dog are shown (V boards, №3). Two of the people in the hands of a long stick (cudgel), the other two in one hand and a club, and the other oval object like a shield. Despite, that the people depicted in the dynamics, at the time of the action, dog in their environment is depicted standing quietly (24, rice. 86, №1).
In another scene depicts three dogs and a snake (V boards, №4). Two dogs are shown face to face, during a fight (24, ris.91, №1).
Even on one stone (V boards, №5) It shows a scene of grazing - shepherd, goats and dog (24, rice. 98, №3).
Attracted the attention of one scene, reflecting the protection of cattle dogs (VI scoreboard, №1). two shepherd pictured here, goats, predator (leopard?), trying to break one of the goats and dogs, pounces on this predator. Along with these figures, Various signs are also shown (24, rice. 124, №1).
One scene is depicted in realistic shades, showing the use of dogs during the hunt (VI scoreboard, №2). There are painted man with a long stick in his hand, and before him four dogs, chasing deer (24, ris.139).
In the scene, depicted on one of the stones, (VII panel, №1) dog shows, surrounded by herds, consisting of small ruminants (24, rice. 142, №1).
Also interesting is another scene, showing a dog as a guard (VII panel, №2). At this stage two shepherds are depicted, three goats, trying to attack them a wolf and a dog, standing in front of the wolf. (24, ris.163, №1).
dogs Images were also observed in various stages of the midst of petroglyphs. They meet on a few rocks in the scenes, associated with the hunting theme. In one scene, (VIII panel, №1) dog standing next to a hunter, tselyaschimsya an arrow at a mountain goat (27, ris.171). And in another scene, (VIII panel, №2) hunter took aim at the mountain goat from a bow. The dog stands in the way of the mountain goat.
On one of the stones shows the dog, standing in front of a herd of sheep and goats (VIII panel, №4). Here on these images also painted month (27, ris.214).
On the other stone (VIII panel, №4) dog depicted standing behind the two goats (27, rice. 215). painted stone on another four goats and a dog behind them, (27, rice. 216). In scenes, depicting various animals, birds, insignia, insects are also found dog image (27, rice. 315-316). Very likely, Such scenes were of a special ritual character (IX scoreboard). The thorn petroglyphs most of the dogs depicted with ears.
As we know from ethnographic observations, during grazing or nomadic herders, directing some of the dogs ahead of the herd, and some behind him, thus protect animals from external forces. some scenes, found on rock art of the Lesser Caucasus, figuratively reflect exactly that content. As seen, rock carvings from the Bronze Age in mainly reflect the role of dogs in the household. There is also the connection with some images of dog cult.
In the Late Bronze – Early Iron Age there has been a rapid development of the economy and in particular the mountain cattle as a result of the rapid growth of the livestock of sheep and goats. During the summer grazing in the mountains dogs were an indispensable tool for the protection of the herd, in the valley, and on the mountain pastures. The archaeological sites of this period still more common finds, associated with dogs. In the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age prominently, occupied by a dog on the farm, It led to the deposition of a deeper imprint iconic relationship to the dog in the minds of people of that time. This ratio - the cult of the dog, especially evident in the tombs.
The main chamber II in Mingechevir mound near the other pets has been found 4 dog skeleton. (15, p.96). The tomb in the necropolis №3 Sarydarinskogo Shahbuz area of the lower jaw of a dog was found (22, p.44). This jaw was investigated D.V.Gadzhievym, who established, that it belongs to tame dog (2, p.27). V.Bahshaliev linked the discovery of dog jaw in the grave with the cult of this animal (16, p.51).
dog images found on ceramics, related to Khojaly-Gadabay culture Gyandzhachayskogo pool. The dishes, found in the burial mound №13 around Khanlar, depicts a dog, standing in a circle. Ornaments on this dish different from other vascular patterns (18, p.67). On one of the bronze belt, related to Khojaly-Gadabay culture it depicts a hunting scene with a dog, pursuing animals (9, p.138).
The most interesting archaeological evidence of the existence of dog cult in the Late Bronze – Early Iron Age in Azerbaijan were found during excavations at the necropolis Tovuzchayskogo Tovuz region in the hallway of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan. In this necropolis during carried out by the author in 2004 g. excavation of several graves of dogs were found with the man. These burial:
Grave number 10. The burial chamber from east to west, was excavated size 2,5 h m 1,6 m, depth 1,9 m. In the eastern part of the graves of buried old man in a bent position, lying on the right side of his head to the west. Before man skeleton of a dog was found. The dog was buried in a sitting position in the same direction, that man.
Tovuzchayskiy nekropoly, pogr. № 10. 1)plan; 2)graphic reconstruction
skeleton of a dog is severely damaged, its location is violated. Behind the human skull remains small horned animal were found. In the western part of the graves were 5 clay vessels. Four of them - pots, and one - pitcher (X boards).
Grave number 53. (XI-XII scoreboard). This burial chamber, which has a very interesting structure, It consists of upper and lower tiers. The upper chamber was excavated in the south-west - north-east direction, measuring 1,8 h m 1,5 m and depth 80 cm. In the southwestern part of the chamber two pots were put, and to the north-east of them - dishes such as copper bowls.
Tovuzchayskiy nekropoly, pogr. № 53. Plan and section
Body of a woman had been buried on top of the dishes on the left side, head southwest, face-northwest, slightly bent in the pelvis, and strongly bent at knees. Arms, bent at the elbows, directed to the chest. On the neck a necklace of red agate and pastes have been found, on each hand, one bracelet of thick wire. Behind the pelvic bone was one small jug, put upside down. one large pot was placed in front of the skeleton. In view of the severe damage to save the vessel was not possible. The dishes, lying over the skull, bones were found, owned small horned animal. To the north-east of the upper tier was dug deep lower tier 1,7 m, measuring 1,35 h m 1,20 m.
Tovuzchayskiy nekropoly, pogr. № 53. 1)plan; 2)graphic rekonstruktsiya
Over the walls of the chamber were laid 8 earthenware vessel. Two of which - pitchers, and six - pots. The central portion, surrounded by dishes, two dogs were buried in a sitting position, on all fours, the head of which are directed to the north. Other archeological materials were found here. Inside the burial chamber filled with earth, mixed with river stones.
Grave number 54 (XII whiteboard). The burial chamber was excavated in a layer of natural gravel in the northwest - southeast direction, depth 1,8 x 1,1 m. In the north-western part of the graves are laid 3 large vessel such as pots and jars.
Tovuzchayskiy nekropoly, pogr. № 54. 1)plan; 2)graphic reconstruction
In the south-west of the located in the center of the pot lay 1 a large bowl of poor. The head of the human skeleton was found inside the bowl. A man's body was buried in a flexed state head to the northwest. Before the bones of the lower leg of a corpse found 1 small pot black, fallen on its side.
In view of the severe damage to save the vessel it has not been possible. Behind the human skeleton near the north-eastern wall of the grave in the north-west direction of the dog skeleton was found. Before skeleton human bones of small horned animal were found. In the southwest, the grave inside the pot with a wide neck jawbone small horned animal was found. The grave was laid only one part of pots. Next to this piece of obsidian utensils was found. Other archaeological materials, except for ceramic products, consisting of earthenware, It was found.
In all three graves bones of small horned animals were found. Usually, If the dog is buried in front of the person, meat cattle placed behind the human skeleton (grave number 10 and 53) and, conversely, If the dog is buried behind the man, meat of cattle placed in front of the human skeleton (grave number 54).
As seen, in Tovuzchayskih graves presentation, associated with the cult of the dog, It reflected on the basis of visual, material facts. Burial dogs in both male, and in female graves indicates the important, that the cult of dogs held in the beliefs of a large social group (tribe, kind), relating to this necropolis.
Burial dog with human evidence of the high esteem, to give her. The essence of the funeral rite is, that man, and dog, and items, put in the grave, reflect the events of real life and on the "other world" in everyday life and require dog, and tools. In grave № 53, in the chamber, where two dogs are buried, pottery was put, as well as in people's graves, that says about the worship of dogs people.
In the grave №53 attracts attention another interesting funeral rites. As noted, buried in this grave woman and two dogs. Burial dogs on the lower tier in a sitting position means, they protect and serve the woman buried here. Interesting, that according to the legend in the Avesta, when the spirit of a dead person crosses the bridge Chinvat, him to arrange questioning, then the beautiful girl accompanied by two dogs, spending spirit through this bridge, It leads him to the wall, symbolizing the border into another world. And from there, the spirit of the deceased goes to Ahura Mazda (23, p.118).
As seen, funeral ceremony of the grave number 53 content coincides with the legend Avesta. another fact, eye-catching, serves as the, that in some graves Tlinskogo necropolis on the territory of South Ossetia, relating to the late stage of the Bronze Age, Dog figurines have been found, made of bronze. Interesting, that these figures, associated with the cult of the dog, They have been found in women's graves, and in the graves of men have not met a single dog figurines (34, p.173). These facts give reason to assume the existence of the tradition of the Avesta in the South Caucasus, including, in Azerbaijan, for 4-5 centuries before the formation of Zoroastrianism as a religion, as well as the link between this tradition and funeral rites.
At the entrances of several tombs in the necropolis Yondzhatepinskom few whole skeletons of dogs have been found in East Anatolia. Here, №6 in the grave next to each person, and all of them - 16, It was buried by a dog (2, p.27).
In West Azerbaijan (now - Armenia) in the grave № 100 Artik cemetery, belonging to the Late Bronze - Early Iron Age, dog skull was found. If consider, that in this necropolis of animal bones found in very rare cases (36, p.23), we can talk about the connection found in the grave of a dog skull cult.
Generally, in many ancient religions and myths next to the existing, accompanying spirits through a bridge, consider switching to the light, there are dogs. Therefore, some researchers, discussing the cult of the dog, celebrated, dogs, buried together with people, They played the role of "carrier" of the spirit of his deceased master to the light (8, p.256, 11, p.64; 25, s.4-5).
During archaeological excavations have revealed a number of facts, reflecting the use of dogs and cats in Azerbaijan cult of antiquity and the early Middle Ages. From this point of view, are of particular interest Shamakhy finds. During excavations, held in Shamakhi Dzh.Halilovym, in the economic pit, relating to the last quarter of the I millennium BC, It was discovered Riton, made of soft limestone. His height was 17 cm, and the diameter - 9 cm. The upper part of the rhyton is decorated with convex images of two people and a dog's head. excavations the author writes about the image of the dog's head due to the rite. At the same time in Shamakhi, at the cemetery, relating to this period, Skeletons of dogs have been found (8, s.251-256). As one of the authors of antiquity, Valerius Flaccus, Caspian, One of the Albanian tribes, treated dogs after their death with the same respect as people and buried them in the mounds of their ancestors, and the graves of heroes (8, p.256).
dog skeletons were also found in some graves in Azerbaijan, relating to the period of the early Middle Ages. So, in the grave № 3 Sandygtepinskogo necropolis in Guba region was also found dog bones with the bones of another animal (10, p.45).
Definitions The following concepts, associated with the cult of the dog in Azerbaijan, also preserved in the ethnographic and folklore materials. important place, occupied by a dog in animal husbandry, It retains its relevance to the present day. "The shepherd then stabs the wounded sheep, selected dogs from the wolf, and gives it to the dogs in the rump award " (17, p.87).
In some regions of Azerbaijan hanged a dog skull in the courts, as it is considered, he protects the people living in the house of the evil eye (8, s.255).
In Nakhchivan folklore preserved interesting materials, associated with dogs. One of them is connected with the famous feast Eskhabi-Kahf. So, according to legend, There was a kind of state, headed by an ancient ruler Dag Yunis (Tagiyanos), and the capital city was Efsus. According to the stories Nakhchivan population, the ruins of the city near the present village Nehram today are called "dead city". Escaped from the yoke of Doug Younis six people, We went to the mountains. On the way, they are joined by a shepherd dog Gitmir. Hiding in a cave Eskhabi-Kahf, these people slept there anymore 300 years. When they woke up and realized, that they are in a completely different time,, they pray to Allah for the death and, once lean against the wall, disappear. People, included in this cave, see the trail of seven people, and since then the cave became a place of pilgrimage (33, s.96-97; 7, s.7-9). This tradition emphasizes the loyalty of the dog people. In fact, there are researchers, who write about the connection of this tradition to the legend of the seven Efesinskih cave dwellers and dog, and attribute it to a number of caves in the Islamic world (33, p.96).
As noted above, in Gamigaya were marked image, associated with dogs. The legend, associated with a high mountain lake Goygol, located in the same geographical area, that monuments Gamigaya, also tells about a shepherd and his dog. according to legend, because of, that is not the shepherd sacrificed, promised lake Goygol, all his flock disappears in the lake. Repentant shepherd and his dog for so long stood and looked into the lake, that their reflections will forever remain in the water (1, p.71).
In this way, Archaeological excavations show, that since the period of the early agricultural and herding culture in Azerbaijan before Islam at all historical stages of the dog it is widely used in the economy and everyday life, important place, occupied by a dog, as the closest human helper, It led to the emergence of the cult of the dog. And in places of ancient settlements, and graves, and rock art material-cultural samples were found, reflecting the use of the dog and the dog's cult. Production figures dogs from different materials, burial of dogs together with people, some scenes of rock art, associated with dogs, connected with the cult of the dog. Ethnographic and folklore materials also prove, that until recently there were remnants of representations, associated with the cult of the dog, the roots of which date back to the ancient era.
chairman “Fanciers' Association
Native Caucasian sheep Azerbaijan”
Journal “FRIEND” August 2006 №8